s or nanoparticles are not simply another step in the miniaturization of particles. There are many processes to build various sizes of nanomaterials, classified as ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’. Although large no.of nanomaterials are currently at the laboratory stage of manufacture, many of them already are being commercialized. is science and technology conducted at the , which is about one to 100 nanometers. Nanotechnology is the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as biology, physics, chemistry, engineering and materials science.
Carbon-based nanomaterials have been applied in many fields. , are used to improve the mechanical property of polymers or metals.
Carbon could form two types of lattice:
· The diamond lattice with , where each atom is connected with four others,
· The graphite lattice. Graphite is formed by flat hexagonal layers of carbon atoms, separated by 3.35 Å (angstroms),
The bonding energy of two atoms located in the same layer exceeds the same energy for different layers, and as a good approximation one can consider these atoms as having sp2 - hybridization.
Nano Biotechnology & Healthcare
is the one of the best application in biological fields. This is an integrative field that presently recruits approach, facility and technology available in conventional as well as advanced avenues of engineering, Chemistry, Biology and Physics. This technical application have leds to the creation of new formation of nanostructures, each as characterized by their explorative utilization in different types of applications in and biomedicine. These applications are expected to automatically improve the therapeutic and diagnosis aspects of many diseases. The materials have been analyze and reported as components of and as very adequate drug delivery platform.
For example researchers are using attached to carbon nanotubes in chips to detect cancer cells in the blood stream. The scientist believe this method could be used in simple lab tests that could provide early detection of cancer cells in the bloodstream.
Session 4: Material Science:
is an interdisciplinary field including the properties of issue and its applications to different territories of science and building. as characterized by size is normally expansive, including fields of science as different as surface science, natural science, sub-atomic science, semiconductor material science, vitality stockpiling, , sub-atomic designing, and so forth. The related research and applications are similarly various, going from augmentations of customary gadget physical science to totally new methodologies dependent on sub-atomic self-get together, from growing new materials with measurements on the to direct control of issue on the nuclear scale. The nanomaterial’s field incorporates subfields which create or study materials having remarkable properties emerging from their nanoscale measurements.
is distinct as engineering, technology and science which agrees the combination of virtuously electronic devices, electronic chips and circuits. Nanoscale proportions of nanoelectronic elements for systems of involution measured on a chip. Nowadays researchers are exploring the various alternative ways for modifying and, manufacturing logic circuits by incorporating light-sensitive organic particles into a tiny molecules of semiconductor material referred to as quantum dots. This improvement or development of nano electronic elements are referred to as as ‘Beyond CMOS’ domain of development. The digital system Integrated with Radio-Frequency analog circuits.
have been receiving more attention in recent days because of their potential usage, not only as associate increased thermo physical heat transfer fluid and because of their great importance in applications like drug delivery and oil recovery. However, there are some challenges that require to be resolved before nano fluids will become commercially acceptable. The most challenges of nano fluids are their stability and operational performance. Nano fluids stability is considerably necessary so as to keep up their thermo physical properties once fabrication for an extended amount of your time. Therefore, enhancing nanofluids stability and understanding Nano fluid behavior area unit a part of the chain required to modify such sort of advanced fluids.
A nanofluid is a fluid containing nanometer-sized particles, referred to as nanoparticles. These fluids area unit built mixture suspensions of nanoparticles in an exceedingly base fluid. The nanoparticles used in nanofluids area unit usually fabricated from metals, oxides, carbides, or . Common base fluids embrace water, and oil.
is study of the character and mechanism of toxic effects of on living organisms and alternative . Toxicology is a discipline that investigates the adverse effects of chemical substances and therefore the interaction mechanisms of those substances on the living organisms. Nano toxicology could be an apart of that studies on toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs). The changes in structural and physicochemical characteristics of a material in nano-size compared to micro-size, would lead to variety of changes in toxicological impacts.
Nano toxicology, could be a study that associated with the security considerations of nanomaterial’s, could be a speedily increasing space of analysis within the field of materia medica attributable to the wide applications of nanomaterial’s in an exceedingly multidisciplinary situation. The distinctive chemical science properties create nanoparticles act with the systems inflicting unpredictable similarly as undesirable consequences. Hence, an output investigation into nano-bio interaction is secured to confirm the right and safe use of nanomaterials.
is being employed in many applications to enhance the environment. Nanotechnology helps to improvement up existing pollution, up producing ways to reduce the generation of recent pollution, and creating energy sources a lot of value effective. As well as saving raw materials, energy and water as well as by reducing greenhouse gases and hazardous wastes.
By using Nanotechnology increased durability of materials against mechanical stress and nanotechnology-based dirt- and water-resistant coatings to reduce cleaning efforts. to improve the energy efficiency of buildings; adding to a material to reduce weight and save energy during transport.
Nanotechnology applications that benefit the environment
· Nanotechnology could make battery recycling economically attractive
· Nanomaterials for radioactive waste clean-up in water
· Nanotechnology-based solutions for oil spills
could be a quickly developing field coming into the globe of and taking them to succeeding level. They will incorporate Nano sensors, Nano computers and Nano machines into their structure which can modify them to respond on to their atmosphere. The nano scale are one among the most common promising and quickly developed analysis areas in materials chemistry. Nano hybrid materials will be mostly outlined as synthetic materials with inorganic and organic elements that are connected along by bonds or covalent bonds at nanometer scale. The unlimited potential mixtures of the distinct properties of organic, inorganic, or maybe during a single material, either in molecular or nano dimensions, have attracted significant attention.
Types of hybrid materials: sandwich structures, lattice structures, segmented structures, and more.
The field of targeting on the development of computer technologies depend on the principles of quantum theory. explains the performance and nature of matter and its energy at the quantum level. Important progress has been devlped in numerous applications of , and much more efforts are focused on the speculation of nano computers. The recent results illustrate about novel logic and memory nanoscale integrated circuits will be fabricated and implemented. This progress is primarily because of the application of nanotechnology.
Old version computers are number calculation machines, performing basic arithmetical operations on numbers. In computer coding language, these numbers are expressed in binary number units of 1and 0, also called bits. Each and every bit, stores the smallest piece of information and can accept a value of either 1 or 0. Similarly , quantum computers are designed to operate or work on quantum bits. An amazing propertys of qubits is that they can be of any value equal to or between +1 and -1, until we measure them. As like in a classical computer, the initial states of qubits need to be prepared before quantum data processing.
materials explain the development of novel nanomaterial’s and their assembly into multi-functional structures and devices for their application in key technological areas.
Recently nanostructures such as nanotubes, nanowires, nanoparticles, and nanorods of functional materials have acknowledged considerable attention from the academia and the industry due to their distinctive potential applications and physical properties in nano scale transducers and actuators, ultrasonic devices, and nonvolatile memory devices.
The most commonly applicable example of functional nanomaterials are proteins and nucleic acids. They are nano tools per excellance
research, development and its applications are significant and more potentially beneficial to almost every part of our lives, including health, , infrastructure, , energy, transportation, environmental science, as well as defiance. Several benefits of nanotechnology rely on the possibility to develop the structures of materials at small scales to achieve specific properties which increase the materials’ capabilities.
Above and beyond the traditional energy sources like petroleum, coal, hydraulic, nuclear and natural gas and modern alternatives biomass, geothermal, solar, nuclear, hydrogen and wind. Nanotechnology can extremely use in the future for . Most of the nanotechnologies can used without a traditional electricity resources and can draw the energy they require from the environment in which they operate.
nowadays developing rapidly and taking many advantages. Nanotechnology used to help soldiers survive in battle or critical conditions. This technology used to making weapons, detecting things or persons who cross the boundaries against the rules. is being developed that could be thin, spandex and contain health monitors and communications equipment. This technology can also provide strength that far surpasses currently available materials, providing that’s much more effective. These jumpsuit style outfits might even be able to react to and stop biological and chemical attacks in the defense field. This type of protection and these devices would be integrated into one suit that would be more efficient and lightweight than current packs.
Session 14: Nanofertilizers and Agriculture:
are the important tools in agriculture to improve crop growth, yield and quality parameters with increase nutrient use efficiency, reduce wastage of fertilizers and cost of cultivation. Nano-fertilizers are very effective for precise nutrient management in precision agriculture with matching the crop growth stage for nutrient and may provide nutrient throughout the crop growth period. Nano-fertilizers increase crop growth up to optimum concentrations further increase in concentration may inhibit the crop growth due to the toxicity of nutrient. Nano-fertilizers provide more surface area for different in the plant which increase rate of and produce more dry matter and yield of the crop. It is also prevent plant from different biotic and abiotic stress. Because of the limitation in arable lands and water resources, the development of sector is only possible by increasing of resources use efficiency with the minimum damage to production bed through effective use of modern technologies.
is a growing and interdisciplinary technology often seen as a new industrial revolution. Nanotechnology deals with materials one to 100 nm in length. The fundamentals of this technology lie in the fact that the properties of materials drastically change when their dimensions are reduced to nanometer scale. Nowadays the textile industry has discovered or invent the possibilities of nanotechnology. This nanotechnology also has actual commercial potential for the textile industry. This is mainly due to the fact that conventional methods used to impart different properties to fabrics often do not lead to permanent effects, and will lose their functions after laundering or wearing. Nanotechnology can also provide high durability for fabrics, because having a large surface area-to-volume ratio and high surface energy, thus presenting better affinity for fabrics and leading to an increase in durability of the function.
are progressively getting used within the food packaging trade attributable to the vary of advanced useful properties individuals will bring round packaging materials. Nanotechnology-enabled food packaging will usually be divided into 3 main classes
• Improved packaging – Whereby nanomaterials are mixed into the polymer matrix to enhance the gas barrier properties, likewise as temperature and wetness resistance of the packaging;
• Active” packaging –Illustrated by the utilization of nanomaterial’s to act directly with the food or the environment to permit higher protection of the product. As an example, silver nanoparticles and silver coatings will give properties, with alternative materials getting used as gas or scavengers;
• intelligent/smart” packaging – Designed for sensing biochemical or changes within the food, as an example detective work specific developing within the food, or specific gases from food spoiling. Some “smart” packaging has additionally been developed to be used as a chase device for food safety or to avoid counterfeit.
is using the world widely, and it is one of the best new platforms for all sectors and this technology used in detecting, or decoding things, and that is known as . These sensors are the trending platform with a characteristic dimension - nanometer in scale, & work in much the same way as a sensor; they detect minute particles, miniscule quantities of something. These sensors are mechanical or chemical sensors that could be used to rapidly detect or sense the chemical presence species and nanoparticles or monitor physical parameters like light, temperature, on the nano scale. This Nanotechnology mainly used in applications, water, and food quality sensing, and other chemicals.
Nano sensors can be chemical sensors or mechanical sensors. They are used:
· Nanotechnology used to detect various chemicals in gases for pollution monitoring
· This technology used in medical diagnostic purposes either as or in lab-on-a-chip type devices
· And also to monitor physical parameters such as temperature, displacement, and flow
The construction or civil industry has much more gain from nanotechnology. Solutions in the offing range from materials with best insulating properties, to solar cells that power produce to houses’ and more economically, siding that is protected from the effects of weather. Basic general construction materials like cement, concrete and steel will also benefit from this . Addition of can lead to stronger, self-healing, more durable, fire resistant, easy to clean, air purifying and quick compacting concrete. Although these research sectors has been reporting intensively about new technological developments, the reality shows that “nano-products” in the construction industry continue to play a subordinate role and currently merely occupy niche markets. The construction industry is considered to be conservative, and innovations often have a difficult time breaking into the business market.